Toward More Comprehensive Evaluations of 3D Immersive Sketching, Drawing, and Painting

Toward More Comprehensive Evaluations of 3D Immersive Sketching, Drawing, and Painting Article

Mayra Donaji Barrera Machuca, Johann Habakuk Israel, Daniel F. Keefe, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger


To understand current practice and explore the potential for more comprehensive evaluations of 3D immersive sketching, drawing, and painting, we present a survey of evaluation methodologies used in existing 3D sketching research, a breakdown and discussion of important phases (sub-tasks) in the 3D sketching process, and a framework that suggests how these factors can inform evaluation strategies in future 3D sketching research. Existing evaluations identified in the survey are organized and discussed within three high-level categories: 1) evaluating the 3D sketching activity, 2) evaluating 3D sketching tools, and 3) evaluating 3D sketching artifacts. The new framework suggests targeting evaluations to one or more of these categories and identifying relevant user populations. In addition, building upon the discussion of the different phases of the 3D sketching process, the framework suggests to evaluate relevant sketching tasks, which may range from low-level perception and hand movements to high-level conceptual design. Finally, we discuss limitations and challenges that arise when evaluating 3D sketching, including a lack of standardization of evaluation methods and multiple, potentially conflicting, ways to evaluate the same task and user interface usability; we also identify opportunities for more holistic evaluations. We hope the results can contribute to accelerating research in this domain and, ultimately, broad adoption of immersive sketching systems.

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